The history of pharmacy
Pharmacy was born in old times when human being started to search for remedies for treatment of the ailments. First pharmacies in Europe appeared in 1100 in monasteries. At the same time first prescriptions were created and they were started with the words «Good luck».
The earliest ever found Pharmacopoeia Articles for different medicines were created and collected by monasteries scientists. So, European pharmaceutical School's roots go to the pharmacists in monk's cassocks.
In 15 century first appeared term «provisor» - from Latin - foreseeing, predicting, that explains importance of the role of the pharmacists in treatment process.
Most complete formularies about creation of the pharmacies and «pharmaceutical management» were produced at the end of 17 - beginning 19 centuries.
Practices of giving education to the pharmacists within Universities were first introduced in France and England at the beginning of 19 century. First of all education was oriented on gaining knowledge and practical skills in manufacture and use of the medicines. But later educational courses started to include more theoretical subjects.
The medicines production in the Old Russia was based on own national traditions and knowledge taken from antique texts. Development of the medical and pharmaceutical knowledge started after establishment of good relations with Western Europe.
Let me turn to the first pharmacy of Russia. In 16 century first professional pharmacists arrived to Moscow. First pharmacy was organized in accordance to western regulations.
First public pharmacy was opened within public hospital in 20 of March 1672 in Moscow. Pharmacists were responsible for the pharmaceutical stocks that were opened within the pharmacies.
Reform by Peter I in 18 century was Apothecary's Reform that fixed European normative and European type of the pharmaceutical service. Pharmacies were recognized special enterprises with high sanitary level and not simply shops.
In 17 century Russian system of the pharmaceutical education was alike European one. But since 1785 Pharmacists received a great opportunity to get European standard education in newly established Moscow University.
Next principal step in reform of the apothecary's activity was made in 1857 when a medical statute was implemented. It was consist of three books and according to it:
Only pharmacist could manage the pharmacy:
And each Pharmacy must have: Prescription room, Material room (for storage of the materials), Laboratory, Dry basement, Ice-room (refrigerator), Drying-room (for storage of the herbal products).
Pharmacy must have special books for supply of the medicines according to prescriptions and without, poisons, herbs.
And at the beginning of 20 century Russia was able to cover necessity in highly educated specialists in pharmacy. During XXI century Russian pharmacies have began to have a strong market orientation. The pharmacy system has been changed because of new condition of competition. Now it is based on a study of market conditions, the formation of assortment, pricing and development etc.
S. A. Pustoshkina, V. A. Kovbas
|Опубликовано 19.12.2019 11:03 | Просмотров: 76 | Блог » RSS|