The basic features of physical training and sports for disabled people in the Russian Federation
Russian State University of Physical Education Sport, Youth and Tourism, Russia Introduction. Now sports for disabled develop in Russia, and serious measures are taken for their social adaptation. Sports for persons with the limited possibilities reached higher level of development, first of all because of the increasing State support.
The importance and significance of research. More than 13 million Russian citizens are disabled, and a considerable part of them are children with various infringements. According to the statistic data of 2007 only 3% of invalids are engaged in regular physical training and sports. (In 2004 - only 1,5%). Results. Paralympic movement is actively developing in Russia more than 15 years under the supervision of the National Paralympic committee and the Federation of physical training and sports of invalids. These organizations managed to arrange more than 1200 different sport events for disabled people. Many regions of the Russian Federation successfully develop Paralympics movement and this process become more and more intensive. They are: Komi, Krasnoyarsk region, the Volgograd, Voronezh, Moscow, Omsk, Perm, Rostov, Saratov, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk areas, in Moscow and St.-Petersburg, Bashkiria and Tatarstan.
Financing of training and participation of the Russian sportsmen with the limited possibilities in different international competitions, including Paralympic and Surdoolimpc games, has increased more than 10 times for the period since 1998. Financing of the All-Russia sports events for invalids for five years has grown from 8 to 60 million roubles.
Since 2000 monetary compensations are allocated to winners and prize-winners of Paralimpyc games, and since 2003 - to winners and prize-winners of Surdoolimpic games and their trainers. On the results of the year the national Paralimpic and Surdoolimpic committees of Russia present the lists of leading sportsmen, candidates on presidential grants. The Decree of the Russian President on December, 4th, 2003 about establishment of special grants to sportsmen - members of national Paralympic and Surdoolimpic teams. According to this document 100 grants annually are given for best sportsmen. In 1999 a public charitable organization "Special Olympic Games of Russia" in the Russian Federation has been established. A main objective of this organization declared in its charter is assistance by means of physical training and sports to successful rehabilitation of invalids, their social adaptation and integration into a society. In the programs of the Special Olympic Games more than 2 million people representing 169 countries are engaged.
During last ten years Special Olympic Games exist in Russia the number of athletes in our country reached 110 thousand and this organization is functioning in 61 Region of the Russian Federation. The Special Olympic Games of Russia regularly arrange sport events of different level on 27 summer and winter sports. The key rule of the Olympic movement – the main thing not a victory remains, but participation. For today the draft law «On Paralimpic sports» is under discussion. This new law for the Russian Federation is very important because it will stimulate society to contribute to social adaptation of persons with limited possibilities, including sports means.
Physical culture and sports became accessible to all, since 2006, when was adopted the Federal Program «Physical training and sports Development in the Russian Federation on 2006 – 2015». Conclusions. Within the frames of the program 200 stadiums, skating rinks, pools, sport centers are already built. The program includes also free and preferential access to sports objects by invalids, children and citizens with law income. Program provides a lot of activities for people with limited possibilities: festivals of sports, Games, the championships of different level.
Grechkin M.A., Petrakova V.E.
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