Characteristics of choosing a swimming style in the course of training 6-8 year old children
The urgency of this theme puts in that we suggest solving some problems using innovation approach in teaching of swimming. despite a great number of researches, and methodical workings out. Considerably it concerns to work with children, namely to groups of the initial stage of training. Existing programs of training have little difference from each other (Bulgakovaf N.Zh, 1983; Guzhalovskij A.A., 1983; Makarenko L.P., 1985; Ganchar I.P., 1993; Pogrebnoj A.I., Marjanicheva E.G., 1999). These authors recommend beginning training with any exact swimming style (more often it is crawl on a breast).
Adaptation in water depends on adults and individual adaptive reactions of the organism, and also depends on gained impellent skills during lifetime. Hence, it is easier to teach the child than the teenager or the adult. As at early age impellent skills are just formed, or generated, but not so strong as the adult person‘s, therefore a long time for neutralization of their negative action at formation of new swimming skills isn't required.
However, in the methodical part of written programs hardly any account of individual features of children‘s movements in developing swimming` s strokes. In this regard, we have decided to apply the methodology developed by the choice of swimming‘s stroke on the basis of genetically determined structure of leg movements at during early studying. Thus a child can start swimming lessons from the style which he is predisposed. The incorporation of these features will allow:
• to form the technique of the choosing swimming stroke faster;
• to make the expression of interest on the child by the choosing swimming stroke;
• to reduce the lack of attention from a teacher to the child as an individual.
In connection with the above mentioned, the relevance of research topic is the scientific search for ways to develop and improve methods of teaching swimming 6-8 year old children.
The aim of work- is methodology of choose swimming‘s stroke on the initial training.
Hypothesis. It was assumed that the inclusion of individual characteristics over choosing swimming‘s stroke will make the learning process more effectively.
The object of the study was a process of swimming training of 6-8 year old children.
The subject is selection‘s criteria of choosing swimming‘s stroke by the 6-8 year old children.
1) To determine the percentage of children are predisposed to simultaneous symmetric, simultaneous asymmetric and alternate structure of leg movements structure.
2) To develop and experimentally to prove a technique of training to swim children of 6-8 year-old.
3) To identify the influence of children‘s age on the structure of movements legs.
We used the following scientific methods:
1) Analysis of the literature.
2) Pedagogical observation.
3) Mathematical statistics.
Analysis of the literature. It was studied 25 sources, 20 of them, according to methodic swimming training of Russian authors and 5 foreign.
Pedagogical observation. The method was used with 6-8 year old children in the classroom for initial education to swimming. In pedagogical observation there were involved three coaches, who are counted the total number of trainees in lanes, where children learn to swim. Determined by how many children will choose in the process of free swimming, or that the structure of moving their feet: the simultaneous symmetric and asymmetric simultaneous and alternating.
Methods of mathematical statistics. We used mathematical functions of addition and determine the percent of the total.
Organization of the research.
At the period from September to October 2010 on the basis of Sports Complex «Neptune» in Balashikha was organized pedagogical observation, where were examined 37 children aged from 6 to 8 in the groups of swimming initial training. The most suitable structure of leg movement was fulfilled at the period when the children were given the tim for free swimming at the beginning or at the end of a training.
Results of the research.
The data about choosing the structure of leg movement at children in groups of swimming of primary training were presented in the table number 1.
Results. Based on these data revealed that of all the views of children, simultaneous symmetrical movements have 6 children, which corresponds to 16.2%; simultaneous asymmetric 4 children, which corresponds to 10.8%, alternately at 27 children, which corresponds to 72,9%.
1. It is evident that the majority of children chooses the alternate structure of the leg movements, followed by simultaneous symmetrical, and the third place asymmetric structure.
2. In addition to a personal conversation with the coaching staff it was found out that almost all participants of the conversation begin teaching children with crawl on a breast and on backstroke, without regard to individual predisposition of the structure of leg movements in the water.
3. As a result 27% of children were taught the swimming‘s stroke which is not appropriate to their coordinative predisposition, and it had a negative effect on the efficiency of swimming training.
Lavrentjeva D. A., Aleksandrov A. U., Glembockaja J.I.
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